CHÀO MỪNG BẠN ĐẾN VỚI THẠCH CAO HOÀNG CƯỜNG
Since formation of the antitrust regulations, political stars have used antitrust regulators so you can contour review and administration steps to match her personal or governmental purposes.
Theodore Roosevelt, among the earliest supporters out of “trust-breaking,” registered case up against J.P. Morgans Northern Securities Trust, and therefore managed several railroads. 68 68. Rill Stacy Turner, Presidents Exercising Antitrust: The best places to Mark the new Line?, 79 Antitrust L. J. 577, 578 (2014). not, Roosevelt leftover Morgans trusts you to definitely owned commercial possessions unblemished because the the guy experienced them “good trusts” who cooperate towards the government. Truman and you can Eisenhower got the alternative approach to antitrust enforcement in the brand new petroleum community, arguing one federal security concerns negated any potential competition concerns and you can, occasionally, definitely recommended dexterity anywhere between big petroleum agencies. 69 69. Id. on 58385. Chairman Franklin D. Roosevelt apparently used the risk of the full-measure monopolization data of one’s motion picture world so you’re able to cajole business leaders to generally meet which have your independently, in which he wished they may be “taken care of.” 70 70. Id. at 598 (estimating Robert Jackson, One Son: An enthusiastic Insiders Portrait off Franklin D. Roosevelt 119 (2003)).
The fresh worst presidential abuses out-of antitrust expert, although not, was of the Presidents Johnson and you can Nixon. For each and every used antitrust administration to target media companies that endangered their political dictate. Chairman Johnson went immediately following a newsprint, the latest Houston Chronicle, which had enough time criticized the fresh Kennedy and you will Johnson administrations along with offered Nixons presidential candidacy within the 1960. Immediately following Johnson acquired reelection from inside the 1964, the guy presumably called the fresh Chronicles publisher, just who together with happened to be the fresh new chairman off a bank having a great merger until the Justice Service. Johnson told brand new journalist you to definitely merger acceptance carry out just be offered if the Chronicle accessible to assistance Johnson throughout the their presidency. 71 71. Id. on 587 (pointing out Robert A good. Caro, The years away from Lyndon Johnson: The Passing of Fuel 52327 (2012)).
Nixon similarly used the threat of antitrust enforcement so you can intimidate transmitted network executives in the ABC, NBC, and you will CBS, really the only about three personally possessed television communities broadcasting nationwide at the date, into delivering most useful coverage of your with his administration. Indeed, the guy common this new threat of action more actually getting a lawsuit, noting, “When your risk of banging them is going to allow us to significantly more through its coding than simply carrying it out, upcoming keep the danger. . [Otherwise] they will certainly contour which were complete.” 72 72. Walter Pincus George Lardner, Jr., Nixon Wished Antitrust Threat Create Sway Network Coverage, Wash. Post (The month of january. fourteen, 1997), [ He asked the newest attorney general to not document a keen antitrust situation up against the communities but alternatively in order to “wait for some time, since I will be applying for some thing from the companies.” 73 73. Id. One of his true aides detailed one “keeping this example within the good pending standing gives us you to definitely heck off a club . anything out of a sword of Damocles.” 74 74. Id. Indeed, Nixons personnel bragged that chance of a keen antitrust action coerced NBC to the airing a wedding unique towards the presidents daughter and you may CBS toward hearing Light House input to your their tales. 75 75. Id.
The latest Nixon management and paid a keen antitrust instance from the International Telephone and you will Telegraph Providers (an incident Nixon had strongly compared) adopting the team got presumably contributed $400,100000 so you can Nixons reelection strategy. 76 76. Rill Turner, supra notice 68 ifnotyounobody nedir, in the 588 (mentioning Carl Bernstein Bob Woodward, All the Presidents Guys 252, 25457 (1974)).
Abuse out-of antitrust laws have took place inside administrations one wanted to lessen antitrust enforcement. The fresh new Reagan administration staffed this new antitrust section of the Institution out-of Justice in addition to FTC which have authorities thus supporting away from il School economics your impact are recognized given that “an essentially laissez-faire strategy inside virtually all regions of antitrust.” 77 77. Willard F. Mueller, Antitrust on the Reagan Management , Reveue Francaise deEtudes Americaines 427, 429 (1984), [ But really even that management interfered which have antitrust administration to fit the brand new administrations political desires. If Fairness Agencies first started exploring possible collusion between jet firms and you will air companies, the new Reagan administration ordered new service to quit due to questions you to definitely an investigation would make it more challenging in order to negotiate transatlantic flight prices with the British. 78 78. Rill Turner, supra note 68, at 589. Select as well as id. during the n.51 (describing equivalent presidential disturbance when you look at the antitrust things implicating around the globe items by the Truman, Eisenhower, and you will Clinton). Reagan along with truly provided input on antitrust times of communication and you can metal enterprises, shaping conclusion toward needs away from an effective politician in the place of so you can the needs of what the law states. 79 79. Rill Turner, supra note 68, on 58992.